ije@oajrc.org
您当前位置:首页 > 精选文章

International Journal of Education. 2021; 3: (2) ; 10.12208/j.ije.20210018 .

Cognition, protection and psychological analysis of COVID-19 among medical students and non-medical students
大学生对新型冠状病毒肺炎的认知防护及心理学分析

作者: 隆玄, 史礼帅, 胥宁, 梅爱红, 史久美, 郭长峰, 张云凤, 宋小莲, 王昌惠*,

同济大学附属第十人民医院 上海

同济大学医学院 上海

同济大学附属第十人民医院 上海

上海市普陀区利群医院 上海

*通讯作者: 王昌惠,单位:同济大学附属第十人民医院 上海;

引用本文: 王昌惠*,. 大学生对新型冠状病毒肺炎的认知防护及心理学分析[J]. 国际教育学, 2021; 3: (2) : 33-40.
Published: 2021/10/25 18:05:59

摘要

背景 2019年12月以来,湖北省武汉市部分医院陆续发现了一种新型冠状病毒感染引起的急性呼吸道传染病,目前在全球范围传播,呈世界范围内流行。目的 探讨新冠肺炎疫情期间,非医学与医学大学生对于 COVID-19 的认知水平、防范意识行为、心理焦虑程度等方面有无差异。方法 利用问卷星自行设计问卷内容,采用滚雪球抽样的方法,对1648名大学生进行问卷调查。大学生分为医学生和非医学生两组,问卷填写时间设定为2020年3月3日00:00至3月10日24:00。运用描述性统计和卡方检验对调查数据进行分析。结果 本次调查总共收回问卷1648份,来自非医学生的问卷485份,非医学生的问卷1163份。COVID-19相关知识的认知情况方面,非医学生中,61.3%的被调查者对COVID-19较为感兴趣,66.2%的被调查者主动了解病毒知识,62.1%的被调查者主动了解传染病知识,31.1%的被调查者看医学相关电影或或电视剧;医学生被调查者中,相应的占比分别为66.4%,73.6%,68.1%,68.1%,与非医学生的占比相比,差异均具有统计学意义。COVID-19的防范行为意识方面,非医学生中,46%的被调查者备有N95口罩,88.5%的被调查者备有消毒用品,55.9%的被调查者认为公共场合需戴眼罩,15.4%的被调查者仍选择公共交通出行,15.9%的被调查者近1周内去过公共场所;医学生被调查者中,相应的占比分别为54%,80.5%,49.5%,20.9%,25.6%,与非医学生的占比相比,差异均具有统计学意义。心理健康状况方面,非医学生中,46.2%的被调查者认为COVID-19对生活的影响较大,29.9%的被调查者认为COVID-19对学习的影响较大,25.8%的被调查者认为COVID-19对心情的影响较大,27.3%的被调查者心情为焦虑紧张甚至害怕;在医学生被调查者中,相应的占比分别为52.2%,51.1%,33.2%,36.3%,与非医学生的占比相比,差异均具有统计学意义。求职意向与职业招聘方面,非医学生中,35.9%的被调查者认为COVID-19对求职意向有影响,48.7%的被调查者再给一次机会的话会选择医学,72.2%的被调查者认为COVID-19对职业招聘有影响;在医学生被调查者中,相应的占比分别为42.9%,64.5%,78.7%,与非医学生的占比相比,差异均具有统计学意义。结论 医学生对COVID-19的新闻更为感兴趣,更加主动了解相关医学知识。非医学生防护意识强于医学生。COVID-19疫情对医学生的生活,学习,心情影响更大,医学生表现出更强的焦虑心理。此外,COVID-19对医学生的求职意向及职业招聘影响更大。

关键词: 新型冠状病毒;认识;防护;心理;求职

Abstract

Background Since December 2019, a novel Coronavirus infection with an acute respiratory tract infection has been discovered in some hospitals in Wuhan, Hubei Province. Covid-19 has spread globally, making it a worldwide epidemic at present. Objective To investigate the differences between non-medical and medical college students in the cognitive level, preventive behavior, psychological anxiety of COVID-19 and job application intentions during the epidemic.
Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 1648 college students by snowball sampling. Descriptive statistical and chi-square test were used to analyze the survey data.College students were divided into two groups: medical students and non-medical students. The time for filling in the questionnaire was set from 00:00 on March 3rd to 24:00 on March 10th, 2020.
Results A total of 1648 questionnaires were collected, including 485 from non-medical students and 1163 from non-medical students. In terms of cognition of COVID-19-related knowledge, among non-medical students, 61.3% were interested in COVID-19, 66.2% took the initiative to learn about virus, 62.1% took the initiative to learn about infectious diseases, and 31.1% watched medically related movies or TV series. Among the medical students, the corresponding proportions were 66.4%, 73.6%, 68.1% and 68.1%, respectively. Compared with the proportions of non-medical students, the differences were statistically significant. In terms of awareness of COVID-19 prevention behaviors, among the non-medical students, 46% of the respondents had N95 masks, 88.5% had disinfection supplies, 55.9% thought it was necessary to wear eye masks in public places, 15.4% still chose public transportation, and 15.9% had been to public places in the last week. Among the medical students surveyed, the corresponding proportions were 54%, 80.5%, 49.5%, 20.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Compared with the proportions of non-medical students, the differences were statistically significant. In terms of mental health, among the non-medical students, 46.2% of the respondents thought COVID-19 hada bigger influence on life, 29.9% of respondents believed COVID-19 hada bigger influence on study, 25.8% of the respondents thought COVID-19 had a bigger influence on mood, 27.3% of respondents in the mood for anxiety and even fear, and in medical students surveyed, the corresponding proportions were 52.2%, 51.1%, 33.2% and 36.3%.Compared with the non-medicine proportion, differences were statistically significant. In terms of job search intentions and career recruitment, among non-medical students, 35.9% of the respondents thought COVID-19 hadan impactontheir goal, 48.7% of the respondents believed that they had the opportunity to choose medical, 72.2% of respondents believed COVID-19 hadan impact on job application, and in medical students surveyed, the corresponding proportions were 42.9%, 64.5% and 78.7%, compared with the non-medicine proportion, differences were statistically significant.
Conclusion   Medical students were more interested in the news about COVID-19 and took the initiative to understand relevant medical knowledge. Non-medical students have a stronger sense of protection than medical students. The COVID-19 epidemic has a greater impact on the life, study and mood of medical students. The medical students showed greater anxiety. In addition, COVID-19 has a greater impact on medical students' job search intentions and career recruitment.

Key words: COVID-19; Cognition; Protection; Psychology; Job Application

参考文献 References

[1] 李文豪, 刘博, 刘敏, et al. 湖北省内外公众对新型冠状病毒肺炎的知信行调查分析 %J 暨南大学学报(自然科学与医学版) [J]. 2020, 41(02): 186-93.

[2] HUANG C, WANG Y, LI X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China [J]. Lancet (London, England), 2020, 395(10223): 497-506.

[3] 蔡欢乐, 朱言欣, 雷璐碧, et al. 新型冠状病毒肺炎相关知识、行为和心理应对:基于网络的横断面调查 %J 中国公共卫生 [J]. 2020, 36(02): 152-5.

[4] ZHU N, ZHANG D, WANG W, et al. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019 [J]. N Engl J Med, 2020, 382(8): 727-33.

[5] 陈燕, 金岳龙, 朱丽君, et al. 基于网络的安徽省居民新型冠状病毒肺炎知识、态度、行为调查分析 %J 中华预防医学杂志 [J]. 2020, 04): 367-73.

[6] CHENG V C C, WONG S C, TO K K W, et al. Preparedness and proactive infection control measures against the emerging novel coronavirus in China [J]. J Hosp Infect, 2020, 104(3): 254-5.

[7] WANG Y, WANG Y, CHEN Y, et al. Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures [J]. J Med Virol, 2020, 92(6): 568-76.

[8] WOLLINA U. Challenges of COVID-19 pandemic for dermatology [J]. Dermatol Ther, 2020, e13430.

[9] HUI D S, I AZHAR E, MADANI T A, et al. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health - The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China [J]. Int J Infect Dis, 2020, 91(264-6.

[10] WANG F-S, ZHANG C. What to do next to control the 2019-nCoV epidemic? [J]. Lancet (London, England), 2020, 395(10222): 391-3.

[11] HUI D S, PERLMAN S, ZUMLA A. Spread of MERS to South Korea and China [J]. Lancet Respir Med, 2015, 3(7): 509-10.

[12] CHOI J S, YANG N Y J K J O A N. Perceived Knowledge, Attitude, and Compliance with Preventive Behavior on Influenza A (H1N1) by University Students [J]. 2010, 22(3): 

[13] COWLING B J, PARK M, FANG V J, et al. Preliminary epidemiological assessment of MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea, May to June 2015 [J]. Euro Surveill, 2015, 20(25): 

[14] KLIEM S, BELLER J, TIBUBOS A N, et al. A reanalysis of the center for epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D) using non-parametric item response theory [J]. Psychiatry Res, 2020, 290(113132.

[15] KANG L, LI Y, HU S, et al. The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus [J]. Lancet Psychiatry, 2020, 7(3): e14.

[16] OLAIMAT A N, AOLYMAT I, SHAHBAZ H M, et al. Knowledge and Information Sources About COVID-19 Among University Students in Jordan: A Cross-Sectional Study [J]. Front Public Health, 2020, 8(254.

[17] CHOI B, JEGATHEESWARAN L, MINOCHA A, et al. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on final year medical students in the United Kingdom: a national survey [J]. BMC Med Educ, 2020, 20(1): 206.

[18] LEI L, HUANG X, ZHANG S, et al. Comparison of Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anxiety and Depression Among People Affected by versus People Unaffected by Quarantine During the COVID-19 Epidemic in Southwestern China [J]. Med Sci Monit, 2020, 26(e924609.

[19] MEO S A, ABUKHALAF A A, ALOMAR A A, et al. COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact of Quarantine on Medical Students' Mental Wellbeing and Learning Behaviors [J]. Pak J Med Sci, 2020, 36(COVID19-S4): S43-S8.

[20] 李亚萍, 朱建宏, 王沐淇, et al. 医学生新冠肺炎认知情况及疫情对医学生心理状态和职业认同感的影响 %J 中国医学教育技术 [J]. 1-6.

[21] WANG C, PAN R, WAN X, et al. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China [J]. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020, 17(5): 

[22] CHI X, HUANG L, WANG J, et al. The Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents in China: Differences in Only Child and Non-Only Child Groups [J]. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020, 17(2): 

[23] PARK J-S, LEE E-H, PARK N-R, et al. Mental Health of Nurses Working at a Government-designated Hospital During a MERS-CoV Outbreak: A Cross-sectional Study [J]. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 2018, 32(1): 2-6.

[24] BUKHARI E E, TEMSAH M H, ALEYADHY A A, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak perceptions of risk and stress evaluation in nurses [J]. J Infect Dev Ctries, 2016, 10(8): 845-50.

[25] 刘晓杰. 新冠肺炎疫情下大学生就业工作路径探析 %J 北京教育(德育) [J]. 2020, 03): 90-2.

[26] JIANG X, DENG L, ZHU Y, et al. Psychological crisis intervention during the outbreak period of new coronavirus pneumonia from experience in Shanghai [J]. Psychiatry Res, 2020, 286(112903.